Professor in Evolutionary Psychology, Work and Organizational Psychology


Sex differences

Gender differences in competition and cooperation

Van Vugt, M., De Cremer, D., & Janssen, D. (2007). Gender differences in competition and cooperation: The male warrior hypothesis. Psychological Science. 18, 19-23.



Evolutionary scientists argue that human cooperation
is the product of a long history of competition
among rival groups. There are various reasons to believe
that this logic applies particularly to men. In three experiments,
using a step-level public-goods task, we found
that men contributed more to their group if their group
was competing with other groups than if there was no
intergroup competition. Female cooperation was relatively
unaffected by intergroup competition. These findings
suggest that men respond more strongly than women
to intergroup threats.We speculate about the evolutionary
origins of this gender difference and note some implications




Copyright © 2012– Mark van Vugt